Irrespective of how and when American troops are withdrawn, Iraq will gradually edge closer to an all-out civil war unless the country is first divided and then put back together in some kind of confederation. Iraq has been broken, and this administration can do nothing to put it together again short of a constitutional amendment that provides independent autonomous rule for the three main factions. For this to happen, the Sunnis must be granted true constitutional control over their destiny and land, as well as an equitable share of Iraq’s oil, and each of the three groups needs to have political, religious, cultural, and economic freedom. Once self-ruled regional governments are established, the three groups should then be willing to move toward federalism, with vested powers in foreign policy, national security, and equitable distribution of oil and its revenues. Each might find this option preferable to an otherwise inevitable civil war that will devastate the country and leave behind no victors. In my view, this is the only way to maintain Iraq’s territorial integrity and so prevent it from falling prey to neighboring states and other unfriendly outside influences.